September 26, 2013 @ Wikipedia
The Red Terror in Soviet Russia refers to a campaign of mass killings, torture, and systematic oppression conducted by the Bolsheviks after seizing power in Petrograd and Moscow. In Soviet historiography, the Red Terror is described as having been officially announced on 2 September 1918 by Yakov Sverdlov and ended about October 1918. However, many historians, beginning with Sergei Melgunov, apply this term to political repression during the whole period of the Russian Civil War, 1918–1922. The mass repressions were conducted by the Cheka (the Bolshevik secret police), together with elements of the Bolshevik military intelligence agency (the GRU).
The term “Red Terror” was originally used to describe the last six weeks of the “Reign of Terror” of the French Revolution, ending on 28 July 1794 with the execution of Maximilien Robespierre, to distinguish it from the subsequent First White Terror.
The first White Terror was started by a group in the south of France calling themselves The Companions of Jehu. They planned a double uprising to coincide with invasions by Great Britain in the west and Austria in the east. The movement was crushed by Lazare Hoche at Quiberon, 21 July 1795.
The White Terror took place in 1795, during the period known as the Thermidorian Reaction, in the aftermath of the Reign of Terror. It was organized by reactionary “Chouan” royalist forces, and was targeted at the radical Jacobins and anyone suspected of supporting them. Throughout France, both real and suspected Jacobins were attacked and often murdered. These “bands of Jesus” dragged suspected terrorists from prisons and murdered them much as alleged royalists had been murdered during the September Massacres of 1792. Just like during the Reign of Terror, trials were held with little regard for due process. In Paris, the Muscadins, gangs of dandyish youths roamed the streets attacking Jacobins and sans-culottes.